MIKI

Thursday, October 06, 2005

Music industries and Globalization

Nowadays we can see globalization in various fields. Especially, the Internet is one of the representatives of globalization. Most people use the Internet anywhere. We can buy something that we want through the Internet. So, we can enjoy Internet shopping. According to Dolfsma, “The Internet will change markets for information products” (2005, par. 32). In the past, we could not find out about or buy music of the world; but, now we can download music on the Internet. In addition, using the Internet to buy music is cheaper and useful; so many people do this. However, some people claim that buying music by the Internet makes the music industries worse because they are afraid of the fall of sales.

I think that globalization of music is good for us because we can get a lot of kinds of music cheaply. In addition, I consider that even music industries can get profits.

I insist that it is wonderful for us to can listen to other countries’ music anywhere and anytime. According to McChesney, global media will become more profitable and convenient than before by developing communication technology (2001). For example, even though I live in Japan, I can buy some kinds of music, such as American music. In addition, this music is cheaper and also, I can get them early; because I had to wait about one year to get other countries’ CD before the Internet improved. Improving the information technology is good for the music industries. The Internet brings chances to musicians in order to get new markets; moreover, the monetary situation of musicians will improve by more sales through new technology (Dolfsma, 2005).

In conclusion, I consider that globalization of music is very favorable. Both consumers and music industries can get profits. So, consumers like cheaper price; and, music industries can expand their business.


Reference:

Dolfsma, W. (2000, May). How will the music industry weather the globalization storm? First Monday. Retrieved from "http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue5_5/dolfsma/", Oct. 5, 2005.

McChesney, R. (2001, October). Global media, neoliberalism, and imperialism. Monthly Review. Retrieved from "http://www.monthlyreview.org/301rwm.htm/", Oct. 5, 2005.

China's affiliation with the WTO -research paper-

Abstract

In 2005, China became an official member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) after finishing the term the WTO allowed it. China will face some problems that are demanded from the WTO. And also, China is in the process of working on them. However, I think that China has problems besides demands from the WTO and also, that these are more serious. This paper argues that China has three problems. The first problem is lack of human rights. The second problem is product counterfeiting. The third problem is pollution. So, I insist that we should not accept China’s affiliation.


China applied General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986, which was a multilateral agreement to regulate trade among about 150 countries. The World Trade Organization (WTO) set up including documents of the GATT in January of 1995. The WTO is an international organization whose purpose is keeping world trade order; about 140 countries are affiliated with the WTO. In July of the same year, China began negotiating in order to become a member of the WTO. Finally, China formally became a member of the WTO in 2001. More recently, China finished the term in which it was an interim member of the WTO in 2005.

China will be confronted with problems about foreign trade. According to the US Chamber of Commerce, China should change its “uneven and incomplete” trade system to an open market by accepting the demands of the WTO (Collinson, 2003, par. 1). One of the problems that the WTO offers is about tariffs. But now, China tries to solve the problem of reducing tariffs, on such things as food crops, wool, and vegetable oils, gradually. Moreover, China worked on non-tariff barriers in agriculture. And also, according to some reports, foreign trade of China will expand; foreign trade of China will reach “15 percent this year to exceed 1.3 trillion US dollars” (Xinhua General News Service, 2005, par. 11). Actually, China’s affiliation makes the international markets bigger for signatory countries of the WTO, and also, some countries, such as the U.S. and Japan, have many factories in China. However, China has some difficult problems that are not solved related to the demands of the WTO; for example, there are counterfeit and a problem with currency conversion between the US and China (Collinson, 2003), and the fact that China has the lack of ability to negotiate about the change of international markets (Xinhua General News Service, 2005). I think that China has more serious problems besides the demands of the WTO. So, I consider that signatory countries of the WTO will be confronted with issues about China’s affiliation.

I disagree with China’s affiliation with the WTO because China should not be pressured to deal with these important issues before it is fully accepted into the WTO. The first issue is disregarding human rights. The second issue is forging other countries’ technology and their skills. The third issue is increasing environmental pollution. I think that Chinese government undervalues these issues; the only thing that fascinates the Chinese government is the economic growth of China. If China’s behavior does not change and the Chinese government continues to ignore these issues, we should kick China out from the WTO. China will not be our partner with the WTO. I insist that the WTO should not accept China for member of the WTO yet. We, signatory countries of the WTO, can use this opportunity to pressure China into necessary changes. When these problems are solved, we can permit China’s affiliation.

First, China should improve its human rights record. We should have liberty to live in this world, so I believe that all people in the world should have equal right. China is one of the communist countries. The Chinese government disregards human rights; therefore, many Chinese do not have freedom and their good social condition entirely. According to human-rights monitor John Kamm (Elliott, 2005), about 3,000 people are persecuted for nonviolent religious and governmental crimes every year; 58,000 people that consisted of workers, farmhands, and investors in the stock-market protested against everything like overtaxation in 2003; however, nobody could change party rules. According to Elliot, the human rights tend to become better; however, they are still controlled under the government (2005). In addition, the human rights of China has remained poor and the Chinese government keeps on committing “human rights abuses including torture, mistreatment of prisoners and denial of due process” (State news service, 2005, par. 4). According to O’Sullivan, senior adviser for Asia in the State Department’s Bureau of Democracy, it is still difficult for Chinese citizens to understand principles and rules exactly that were reinforced dogmatically by the Chinese government (State news service, 2005).

I think that the power of the Chinese government has become much stronger than the Chinese nation. In addition, almost all companies are owned by the Chinese government. If China’s foreign trade expands more, the power of the Chinese government will extend. I consider that these situations are a serious problem for China, especially Chinese citizens, because profits of foreign trade cause the Chinese government’s coercion of Chinese citizens to be stronger than now. We cannot help to increase the Chinese government’s power. We should reconsider China’s affliction with the WTO due to the fact that people of the world have freedom and equal rights.

Second, China should stop counterfeiting foreign technology. Signatory countries of the WTO suffer from China’s counterfeit due to lack of Chinese property rights. Nowadays, there have been increased foreign factories in China. Many countries have moved their factories to China, because labor wage is still lower. My country, Japan, also has many factories, such as electronics industries and apparel industries. In China, there are a lot of counterfeits; China can steal technological skill easily because regulations of counterfeit are still lax. Actually, some countries, such as Japan and the U.S., are damaged by Chinese pirating. According to Barton, U.S. representative, “more than 66% of counterfeit goods” come from China and also, there are many counterfeits and a lot of piracy (Congressional Testimony, 2005). So, China is infested with counterfeits. The U.S. deficits with China trade foresee over 160 billion dollars yearly trade (Becker, 2005). In addition, the U.S. president George W. Bush has failed to protect the U.S. industries from Chinese unfair trade (Becker, 2005).

Counterfeit of China is a severe and difficult problem for signatory countries with WTO, even though Chinese profits may grow. I think that counterfeit of China makes signatory countries unsatisfied or discontented. According to Brilliant (Becker, 2005, par.4), “China is public enemy No. 1 when it comes to theft of intellectual property rights” and “The Chinese made some great promises last year, but the situation has only worsened”. Moreover, Lee, the senior trade adviser for the union federation AFL-CIO, said that the Chinese government disregards international regulations that deal with problems of intellectual property; so, it keeps contented in spite of unmanaged promise (Becker, 2005). I consider that China will make more pirated material as it gets more high technology, because the Chinese government neglects counterfeit problems. So, I insist that China’s behavior for counterfeit is unfair business for signatory countries. Moreover, I think that signatory countries’ deficits with China trade will increase due to disregard of international rules. Therefore, I think that we should not accept China’s affiliation with the WTO before Chinese counterfeit problems are solved. I insist that the acceptance of China is not late after resolving this problem.

Third, China should reduce environmental pollution for our future. When the economy is developing, this creates some environment pollution inevitably. The uncontrolled development of Chinese economy makes various kinds of pollution, for example, deforestation, acid rain, and desertification (Sui, 2005). In addition, “seven biggest rivers and 25 out of its 27 major lakes” (Agence France Press, 2005, par. 6) that are Chinese waterways are polluted; “298 urban areas” (Agence France Press, 2005, par. 7) are damaged by acid rain came from using fossil fuels in order to generate electricity. Acid rain hurts trees, water, soil and so on. Moreover, the influence of acid rain caused by China will expand to other countries. In this case, China has a vast land and a large number of people, so environmental pollution made by the China will influence the environmental area on a global scale. There is another problem which is urban pollution. The urban pollution is an issue caused by fast growth. Although the Chinese economy is developing, according to statistics, “only one-third of the sewage and about 57 percent of the garbage generated in cities” (Agence France Press, 2005, par. 9) was managed. So, facilities for sewage and garbage are still insufficient. Recently, China is becoming one of the worst polluted countries.

However, according to state media report in March, even though the Chinese economic growth for 25 years has made a lot of pollution, “China’s spending on environmental protection will fall 30 percent short of targets for 2001-2005” (Sui, 2005, par. 10). Furthermore, according to Sui, local officials are forced to blind polluters by bribe in order to push on economic growth and maintain their job or promote their status (Sui, 2005). I think that the only important thing for the Chinese government is growing its economy. In the future, the environmental problem will increase as China continues to make environmental pollution. We must think about the environmental problems when an economy is growing. China should think about its environmental problems on ahead, instead of only considering the development of the Chinese economy, because these are irrevocable problems. So, I consider that we should regulate China’s behavior now.

In conclusion, I insist that the WTO should not accept China’s affiliation now because China has three problems that it must solve. These problems are lack of human rights, counterfeit of foreign technology, and pollution of the environment. I consider that China should solve them before entering the WTO because they are serious problems not only for China but also for signatory countries of the WTO. Even though Chinese and signatory countries’ economy will grow considerably, I feel that we will confront these issues someday no matter what we do. And also, I think that these issues will become more difficult and irrevocable than ever; therefore, resolving these issues promptly is important for our future. Moreover, I hope that China will solve these problems. Therefore, I think that we should not accept China’s affiliation with the WTO now and that China’s affiliation with the WTO after solving these problems is not too late for growing the Chinese economy. We should enforce a change in behavior on China. When these problems are on their way toward disappearing, we should admit China to be one of the WTO members.


Bibliography

Agence France Presse (2005, June 2). China faces “severe” environmental problems due to development. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Sep. 14, 2005.

Becker, Elizabeth (2005, August 25). U.S. business calls for WTO action to deal piracy in China. The New York Times. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 25, 2005.

Collinson, Stephen (2003, September 17). China must do more to meet WTO commitments: US Chamber of Commerce. Agence France Presse. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 25, 2005.

Congressional Testimony (2005, June 15). Impact of fakes on jobs and safety. Federal Document Clearing House. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Sep. 26, 2005.

Elliot, Dorinda (2005, June 27). The last frontier. Time. Retrieved from EBSCO, Sep. 18, 2005.

States News Service (2005, April 14). Human rights abuses systematic problem for China, official says. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Sep. 18, 2005.

Sui, Cindy (2005, June 3). China’s economic development creating dire consequences on environment. Agence France Presse. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Sep. 26, 2005.

Xinhua General News Service (2005, April 30). China focus: more challenges ahead in China’s foreign trade. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 30, 2005.

Wednesday, September 21, 2005

China's affiliation with the WTO -Argumentative essay-

China finished the term in which it was an interim member of the WTO; in 2005, China will be confronted with problems about foreign trade. According to the US Chamber of Commerce, China should change its “uneven and incomplete” trade system to an open market by accepting the demand of the WTO (Collinson, 2003). One of the problems that the WTO offers is about tariffs. But, China could solve the problem of reducing tariffs, on such things as food crops, wool, and vegetable oils, gradually. Moreover, China worked on non-tariff barriers in agriculture. And also, according to some reports, foreign trade of China will expand (Xinhua General News Service, 2005). Actually, China’s affiliation increases the international markets. However, China has some difficult problems that are not solved related to the demands of the WTO; for example, there are counterfeit and a problem with currency conversion between the US and China (Collinson, 2003), and the fact that China has the lack of ability to negotiate about the change of international markets (Xinhua General News Service, 2005). I think that China has more serious problems besides the demands of the WTO. So, I consider that signatory countries of the WTO will be confronted with issues about China’s affiliation.

I disagree with China’s affiliation with the WTO due to three serious issues that China has. If China’s behavior does not change, we should not allow that China to be our partner with the WTO. I think that the WTO should not accept China for member of the WTO yet. We, signatory countries of the WTO, cause this opportunity to pressure China into necessary changes. When these problems are solved, I can permit China’s affiliation.

First, China should improve its human rights record. China is one of the communist countries. The Chinese government disregards human rights; therefore, many Chinese do not have freedom and their good social condition entirely. In addition, almost all companies are owned by the Chinese government. According to Elliot, the human rights tend to become better; however, they are still controlled under the government (2005). In addition, human rights of China stay humble and the Chinese government keeps on offending “human rights abuses including torture, mistreatment of prisoners and denial of due process” (State news service, 2005). If China’s foreign trade will more expand, the power of the Chinese government will extend. I think that the power of the Chinese government has become stronger than the Chinese nation. I think that these situations are a serious problem for China. We should reconsider China’s affliction because we may help to increase the Chinese government’s power.

Second, China should stop counterfeiting foreign technology. Nowadays, there have been increased foreign factories in China. Many countries have moved their factories to China, because labor wage is still lower. My country, Japan, also has many factories, such as car industries and apparel industries. In China, there are a lot of counterfeits because China can steal technological skill easily. Actually, some countries are damaged by Chinese pirating. And also, I consider that China will make more pirated material as China has more high technology. So, that is unfair business; moreover, China will not need imports from foreign countries. Therefore, I think that we should regulate China’s counterfeit.

Third, China should reduce environment pollution. Recently, China is becoming one of the worst polluted countries. In this case, China has a vast land and a large number of people, so environmental pollution made by the China will influence the environment area global scale. There are problems about acid rain and urban pollution. The urban problem is an issue that is fast growing because China is one of the less developed countries and China does not have well-made sewage systems. In the future, the environmental problem will increase. I must think about the environment problem when an economy is growing. However, China does not think about its environmental problems even though it considers just industry development. So, I consider that we should regulate China’s behavior now.

In conclusion, I insist that the WTO should not accept China’s affiliation now, because China has three problems that it must solve. However, I believe that China can solve these problems. After that, I think that we should allow that China to be our partner in the WTO.

Reference:

Collinson, S. (2003, September 17). China must do more to meet WTO commitments: US Chamber of Commerce. Agence France Presse. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 25, 2005.

Elliot, D. (2005, June 27). The last frontier. Time. Retrieved from EBSCO, Sep. 18, 2005.

State News Service. (2005, April, 14). Human rights abuses systematic problem for China, official says. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Sep. 18, 2005.

Xinhua general news service. (2005, April 30). China Focus: more challenges ahead in China’s foreign trade. (2005, April 30).Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 30, 2005.

Tuesday, September 20, 2005

China's affiliation with the WTO -Research Paper Proposal -

I came to think about some effects of China entering the World Trade Organization after I read several articles about it. China finished the term in which it was an interim member of the WTO; in 2005, China will be confronted with problems about foreign trade. According to the US Chamber of Commerce, China should change its “uneven and incomplete” trade system to an open market by accepting the demand of the WTO (Collinson, 2003). One of the problems that the WTO offers is about tariffs. But, China could solve the problem of reducing tariffs, such as food crops, wool, and vegetable oils gradually. Moreover, China worked on non-tariff barriers in agriculture. And also, according to the some reports, foreign trade of China will expand (Xinhua general news service, 2005). Actually, China’s affiliation increases the international markets. However, China has some difficult problems that are not solved for demands of the WTO; for example, there are counterfeit and a problem with currency conversion between the US and China (Collinson, 2003), and the fact that China has the lack of ability to negotiate about the change of international markets (Xinhua general news service, 2005). Finally, China’s affiliation has more disadvantages than advantages.

I plan to write that there are three things that the WTO should do in order to control China’s behavior toward foreign trade. First, the WTO should protect signatory domestic industries. China’s affiliation of the WTO will reduce domestic production and increase signatory unemployment. Second, the WTO should regulate counterfeit. Nowadays, some advanced countries have many factories in China. China can steal technological skill easily from other countries. Third, the WTO should tackle environment problems. The growth of Chinese economy creates environmental pollution because China has a vast land and a large number of people.

In conclusion, I found several articles from which I could learn about China entering the WTO and found a helpful website. I need to find other ideas about the solution that the WTO should do.



Reference:

China Focus: more challenges ahead in China’s foreign trade. (2005, April 30). Xinhua general news service. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 30, 2005.

Collinson, S. (2003, September 17). China must do more to meet WTO commitments: US Chamber of Commerce. Agence France Presse. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 25, 2005.

Monday, September 12, 2005

China's affiliation with the WTO -summary-response#2-

In "China must do more to meet WTO commitment: US Chamber of Commerce," by Stephen Collinson from Agence France Presse, Collinson says that the US Chamber of Commerce says that China should change its "uneven and incomplete" trade system to an open market by accepting the demand of the WTO. The US Chamber of Commerce admonishes that it confronts China with strict appeals of US if China does not change anything about the offer of the WTO. However, China could solve some problems about the offer of the WTO, such as "reducing tariff" and "non-tariff barriers in agriculture". But, between China and US, there are difficult problems, for example, counterfeit and a problem with currency conversion.

I disagree with China's affiliation with the WTO because it has some issues. It makes a lot of benefits for international business people, but it makes serious problems about our environment and human rights. I consider that WTO should make a rigid law toward China entering the WTO.

First, the WTO should deal with China's increasing pollution. Recently, China is becoming one of the worst polluted countries. When its economy grows rapidly, there has increased environmental problem. In this case, China has a vast land and a large number of people, so environmental pollution made by China will influence environment of global scale.

Second, the WTO should protect human right because the China government disregards human right. The Chinese economic system is socialism. The Chinese government acts against national right to get profits from foreign trade. The only power of China government will strengthen. Even if the China economy is growing, national life will still have the present condition. I think that the WTO needs to urge the China government to change this.

Third, the WTO should regulate counterfeit because China will make more pirated material. There are a lot of counterfeits in China. China has many foreign factories. China can steal technological skill easily. Actually, some countries are damaged by Chinese pirating. That is unfair business and also, the amount of copying has increased now. I consider that the WTO needs severe regulation.

In conclusion, I believe that China has a lot of problems that it has to solve. The WTO should control risks that China has. I think that the WTO should regulate China's trade.




Reference:

Collinson, S. (2003, September 17). China must do more to meet WTO commitments: US Chamber of Commerce. Agence France Presse. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, 2005, August 25.

Tuesday, September 06, 2005

Effect of China’s foreign trade -summary-respnse#1-

In “China Focus: more challenges ahead in China’s foreign trade,” from Xinhua general news service, the author says that China will be confronted with a dare about foreign trade in 2005; after finishing the term that the world trade organization allowed them to open foreign trade. China will gradually pull down tariff rates on products, such as food crops, wool, and vegetable oils. Foreign trade with China will expand, but the profit of exportation will be relatively small because China does not have high technology of the export and brand-name goods, and also chaos will be caused by free trade. In addition, China will be sensitive about the change of international markets because of the lack of ability to negotiate. However, some articles mention that foreign trade of China will develop.

I disagree with China’s affiliation with the WTO because it has a bad influence upon signatory economy. Actually, the international market has increased because of China’s affiliation. And also, some countries could get large profits. However, I consider that China’s affiliation has more disadvantages than advantages.

First, China’s affiliation with the WTO will reduce signatory domestic production. Nowadays, some developing countries, including my country, Japan, have many factories in China. We can see many products made in China anywhere, and also, they are quite cheaper than domestic products. Many domestic companies have suffered heavy losses. Therefore, I think that we should kick out China.

Second, China’s affiliation with the WTO will increase signatory unemployment. China is one of the less developed countries and China has a large population. The average wage is lower than that of other countries. This is a useful advantage for ambitious companies. However, it will increase unemployment of our countries.

Third, China’s affiliation with WTO will cut down imports into China from abroad. Many companies have their factories in China and China can export many commodities. However, China is a poor country and it has natural resources and some agricultural products. So, the import is not so necessary for China. Moreover, if China gets high skills alike advanced countries, it will not need to import from other countries. I consider that unfair incidents among signatories of WTO will happen.

In conclusion, I believe that China’s affiliation with the WTO has some demerits because it makes our economy worse. I think that we need to oust China from the WTO or we need to make strict rules due to protective trade.


Reference:

China Focus: more challenges ahead in China’s foreign trade. (2005, April 30). Xinhua general news service. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis, Aug. 30, 2005.

Thursday, September 01, 2005

Ketsumeishi

My favorite singer is Ketsumeishi. Ketsumeishi is a famous group in Japan. Ketsumeishi consists of 2 rappers and 1 singer and 1 DJ. HipHop and Reggae are based on their music. Their music is very comfortable and their lyric is impressive for me.

by Miki

Tuesday, August 30, 2005

Globalization

In “Myths of globalization,” by Ralph Peters from USA TODAY, Peters says that globalization has two untrue stories. The first story is that globalization is modern. But, this story is overturned because it had already occurred in the past. The second story is that globalization converts the relation of each country, but it cannot convert human personality. Recently globalization displays an international instability due to the 9/11 event. And globalization menaces the worth of the heritage of a traditional society.

I disagree with this author because globalization has some benefits. I think that globalization is necessary for our life even though it has some shortcomings. I believe that we can sustain the present societies even if globalization keeps growing.

First, globalization can help our business. Globalization can make many markets for our business. I worked at a food company in Japan. My company has a market in Korea. And also, it has profited by this business. So, I consider that globalization is important for people who engage in business to increase markets in the world.

Second, globalization can make our life better. I can get foreign goods even though I lived in Japan. So, we can make a choice among so many. In addition, as globalization grows, a competition about the cost and quality will happen between nations. So, we can get new things that have more quality and are cheaper than conventional things.

Third, globalization can provide us a lot of information. I can get and send some information by using the Internet now. However, we can share much more information by globalization. Moreover, globalization accelerates the speed of communication. This is a good opportunity for us to have an international outlook.

In conclusion, globalization has some advantages. Globalization gives us a better life. I consider that globalization is important to improve our life. I think that we should advance globalization.

Reference:

Peters, R. (2005, May 23). Myths of globalization. USAToday. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Aug. 23, 2005. p.11A.